1. What is BIOS?
Ans: BIOS stands for Basic Input-Output System and is pronounced as “Bye-Ose“. The BIOS is available on all the computers. It makes sure that all the components of the computer can function together. It has information about all the hardware components in the Computer. BIOS can also be called as a Special Software that interfaces the major hardware components of a computer with the Operating System. It is usually stored in a Flash Memory Chip on the Motherboard.
Some functions of BIOS:
- Performs a POST (Power-On Self Test) for all the different Hardware Components in the System to make sure everything is working properly.
- Activating other BIOS Chips on different cards installed in the computer, for example, SCSI and Graphics Cards.
- Provides a set of low-level suiting that the Operating System uses to interface different Hardware devices. BIOS manages things in your computer like the Keyboard, Monitor, Serial and Parallel Ports especially when the computer is Booting up.
- Manage the settings for Hard-disk drives, System Clock etc.
Sequence of things done by the BIOS when you turn on your Computer:
- Check the CMOS for Custom Settings
- Load the interrupt Handlers and Device Drivers
- Initialize Registers and Power Management
- Perform POST (Power On Self Test)
- Display System Settings
- Determine which devices are Bootable
- Initialize the Bootstrap sequence
2. What are the Hardware Components of a Desktop Computer / Laptop?
Ans: The Hardware Components of a Desktop Computer / Laptop are as follows:
1. The Processor (CPU)
3. RAM (Random Access Memory)
4. Power Supply – SMPS (Switch Mode Power Supply)
5. Hard-disk Drives
6. CD/DVD-ROM Drives
7. Floppy Disk Drive
8. Sound Card
9. Graphics (Display) Card
3. What are Hard-Disk Partitions?
Ans: Partitions are used to Divide a Hard-disk drive into smaller segments as required by the user and for better management of the space in it.
4. Difference between RAM and ROM?
Ans: RAM (Random Access Memory) – is used to temporarily store information that the computer is currently working on.
ROM (Read Only Memory) – This is a Permanent type of memory storage used by computers for important data which never changes. (Example: BIOS)
5. What would you check if there is no sound from your computer? (Audio not working)
1. Check for cable connections
2. Check for power to the speakers
3. Check for volume control
4. Check for device drivers
6. If a Customer complains that his computer is working really slow, what are the things you would check?
1. Check if it is taking longer than usual to start up
2. Check if it is slow with one / any particular application or slow overall.
3. Check for Spyware/Malware/Virus in the computer
4. Check the available Hard-Disk Drive Space in the computer.
7. What is the Blue Screen of Death (BSOD)? .
Ans: A Blue Screen of Death (or just a Blue Screen Error) is an indication of a Critical System Problem wherein the Computer freezes altogether and does not respond to anything.
To rectify this problem, try Restarting the computer or Booting into Safe Mode. For more information, read this.
8. Why are Device Drivers required?
Ans: A Device Driver (or just Driver) is a piece of software which is requied to run every Hardware Component present in the computer.
9. Name one of the latest Computer Processors (CPU) ?
Ans: Intel Pentium Quad Core, Intel I3, I5, I7 processors.
10. What is Ping?
Ans: Ping is a command that checks the connectivity with an IP address. For more read this article
11. What is a Data Cable?
Ans: A Data Cable is a Thin Plastic band-like cable used to connect the Data-Devices like Hard-disk drives, Floppy Disk Drives, CD/DVD-ROM drives with the motherboard. Data Cables are primarily used for Data Transfer.
12. Lights on a Modem / LAN Card:
Ans: Generally, there are 04 lights. They indicate the following:
1. Power Light: Shows if the device (Modem)is getting Power Supply or not.
2. Link Light: Indicates if the device is getting broadband/internet signals properly from the ISP
3. Data Light: Indicates wether the internet is working or not.
4. Connectivity Light: Indicates the Modem is connected to a PC or not.
13. Name some of the Ports available in a Computer
Ans: Some of the commonly available ports in a Computer are as follows:
1. Keyboard & Mouse Ports – Also known as PS/2 ports
2. USB Ports
3. VGA Ports
4. Sound Ports
5. LAN Port – Also known as Ethernet Port
14. What does the term USB stand for?
Ans: USB stands for Universal Serial Bus. It allows devices to be connected or disconnected from a computer without shutting down or restarting the computer. The current version of USB is 2.0
15.What is the difference between CRT (Cathode Ray Tube) and LCD (Flat Screen Monitors)?
Ans: CRT Monitors: The Monitor has a picture tube and uses a light-gun to highlight pixels on the screen.
LCD Monitors: These monitors do not have a picture tube and contain a layer of liquid crystals on an Electronic Board.
16.What is an IP Address?
Ans: An IP address is a unique numerical identifier of every device on a network. A typical IP address can look like this: 188.8.131.52. To detect a computer’s IP Address, go to Start – Run – Type in CMD in the Run Dialogue Box and click OK or hit <Enter> – In the Command Prompt Screen that comes up, type in IPCONFIG and hit <Enter>
17. What is DHCP?
Ans: DHCP stands for Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol. It is used to generate & provide IP addresses to the computers on a network.
18. What is DNS?
Ans: DNS stands for Domain Name Services – it is used to convert URLs into IP addresses and vice-versa.
19. Mention a sample computer configuration:
1. Intel Pentium Core 2 Duo – 3.0Ghz
2. 2 GB RAM
3. 300GB HDD
4. DVD Writer
5. 17 inches LCD Monitor
20. Name any Five Microsoft Office Applications:
1. MS Word
2. MS Excel
3. MS Powerpoint
4. MS Access
5. MS Outlook
21. What are RJ45 and RJ11 connectors?
Ans: RJ45 connectors are used for LAN/Ethernet connections and RJ11 connectors are used for Telephone Cable connections.
22.What is a Parallel Windows installation?
Ans: When the first installation of Windows fails to boot for some reason, another copy of Windows is installed in teh same drive but in a different directory (so that the customer can access to and backup his old data). This is called Parallel Installation of Windows.
23.Name some of the versions of Windows XP.
Ans: Windows XP Home Edition, Professional, Media Center Edition, Tablet PC Edition, Mobile
24.What are the components needed to setup a Basic Home Network?
Ans: LAN Cards, LAN Cables, Router/Hub
25. Difference betwen a WORKGROUP and a DOMAIN?
Ans: In a Workgroup, all the computers function as Peers. But in a Domain, One computer is the Server and the others are Clients.
26. What is the difference between FAT32 and NTFS file systems?
Ans: 1. NTFS allows compression and file encryption. FAT32 does not. 2. NTFS is more secure than FAT32
27. What does BOOT.INI do?
Ans: Boot.ini lists all the Operating Systems present in the computer and provide information about which partitions they are located on.
28. How would you access the Recovery Console in Windows?
Ans: By booting with the Windows XP CD and following the on-screen instructrions. The Recovery Console can also be installed in your computer.
29. Provide the names of a few Firewalls:
Ans: Norton, McAfee, Zone Alarm etc
30.What feature of Outlook Express allows multiple customers to send and receive emails, each using a separate account?